Threats to ecosystems: They are elements favored or induced by humans (deforestation, pollution, messy urbanism, etc.) or natural disasters (floods, landslides, etc.), which by their intensity and frequency jeopardize or damage ecosystems being much of them of irreversible damage or high complexity to reverse them.
Protected areas: They are defined geographical areas, consisting of lands, wetlands and portions of sea. They have been declared as such to represent special significance for their ecosystems, the existence of endangered species, the impact on reproduction and other needs and their historical and cultural significance. These areas will be dedicated to conservation and protecting biodiversity, soil, water resources, cultural resources and ecosystem services in general (Article 58 Biodiversity Law Nº7788).
Substantive aspects: They refers to the essential and fundamental SINAC management, according to the legal mandate in terms of responsibilities and principal obligations related to the objectives of protection, conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and natural resources.
Ecosystem goods and services: Ecosystems, whose functioning depends on biodiversity provide essential resources for life (eg, food, clean water, clean air, among many others.), Offer protection from natural disasters and diseases (eg. regulating climate, floods and pests). Besides those provisioning, regulating and cultural ecosystem also ensure and maintain the fundamental processes of life on the planet, as the production of biomass and nutrient cycling (supporting services), which are essential for human wellness. Fifteen of the twenty-four ecosystem services that contribute directly to human wellness are in decline.
Biodiversity: Also called biological diversity refers to the variety of life on Earth and the natural patterns that conform it. Biodiversity also includes the variety of ecosystems and genetic differences within each species that allow the combination of multiple forms of life, and whose mutual interactions with the rest of the environment, underlying the sustenance of life on the planet.
Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and natural resources: The conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and natural resources, it implies compliance with the following assumptions:
(1) Safeguard forever the marine, continental and island ecosystems, ensuring quality and vital genetic interactions.
(2) Ensuring an adequate legal framework governing the protection and rational use of biodiversity and provide the means for compliance.
(3) Highlight the services provided by biodiversity and ensure the appropriate use of it by society.
(4) Ensure that development policies prioritize the protection and sustainable use of natural resources.
(5) Ensuring adequate information and education for the assessment, protection and promotion of rational use of natural resources.
Co-participation: It refers where participation is effective and real, in which occurs an equal and fair exchange, in which decisions are agreed commitments and assessing the needs and demands of all involved. The co-participation contrasts with the "participation" given in one way, where some serve others.
Biological corridors: A geographical area conformed by a continuous landscape of ecosystems and natural or modified habitats, ensuring the maintenance of biological diversity by facilitating both migration and dispersion of flora and fauna, ensuring conservation of the same in the long run.
Hydrographic basin: The space defined by the union of the main tributaries of a river or the territory drained by a single natural drainage system. A watershed is defined by the line of summits, also called diving of waters. One way to regulate and manage the use of natural resources by separating the Hydrographic basin areas, where water is the main object of conservation.
Environmental Culture: Environmental culture, understood as the attitude and action that can care for and preserve the environment. It has to do with the appropriation and permanent implementation of knowledge, values, skills and actions, evidently affecting recovery and stay of a healthy environment.
Ecosystem: Dynamic complex of plants, animals, fungi and microorganisms communities and their physical environment interacting as a functional unit.
Environmental education: Environmental education is the education effort oriented to teach the way the natural environments work, particularly regarding the way human beings can take care of ecosystems to live sustainably. It involves information recompilation, knowledge, values and attitudes that are fundamental tools with which to positively act to understand and act on environmental issues.
Gender equity: is the ability to be fair, just and right in the equal treatment of women and men, according to their respective needs. Gender equity refers to justice needed to provide access, control and benefits of natural resources to women and men.
Exotic species: species of flora, fauna or microorganism whose natural area of geographic dispersion does not correspond to the national territory and is in the country as a result of human activities, intentionally or not, as well as the activity of the species itself.
Invasive species: Invasive species are plants or other animals and organisms transported and introduced by humans in places outside their natural range and have established and dispersed in the new region, which are harmful. An invasive species that is harmful, it means that produces important changes in the composition, structure and processes of natural ecosystems or intervened, putting the native biodiversity at risk.
Vulnerable species: All species of flora and fauna (terrestrial or aquatic), which diminished their habitats, reduced its population, disrupted the natural distribution of the species at risk or their disappearance.
Shared management: Refers to the agreements between the state and community organizations, institutions or private groups for joint participation in the protection, management and sustainable management of natural resources.
Community Management: Understood as actions that promote and support the participation of groups from communities surrounding ASP´s, in processes of environmental education, local organization, environmental services, and sustainable production, among others.
GRUAS II: A SINAC It is an initiative driven by SINAC together with other agencies (FONAFIFO, INBio, CI, TNC), which aims to guide national planning policies using the best available scientific knowledge, optimizing national efforts for in situ conservation of terrestrial biodiversity, freshwater, coastal - marine and navy of the country.
Corporate image: It is the essence of the organization, intentional base of the image the institution wants to project in their different audiences. It is shaped by history, corporate project, values and attributes of the organization.
Institutional Image: It is the perception or idea that different public have about the institution. Three factors that influence it are: visual identity (signs representing the essence of the organization: colors, isotype, font and name), organizational culture (ie their methods of operation) and the institutional project (its objectives and services provided).
Social inclusion: It refers to the process that seeks the involvement and co-participation of all sectors and groups of society, without distinction of sex, age, and race, religious or political beliefs.
Models of governance: The governance is the way a group decides to choose their form of government (construction, mechanisms, procedures, regulations), it applies equally to a local organization, a network of organizations or institutions. But the concept of governance implicit involves a number of conditions or assumptions, called "good governance" or "governance models", including social inclusion, equal participation and mechanisms and forums for accountability, among others.
Land Use Planning: It is a policy that regulates the use of territory, defining the possible and potential uses for the various areas in which it has been divided the territory (eg urban, recreation, protection of natural resources, risk areas. production, industrial, etc.). The LUP is an instrument that is part of the paradigm of sustainable development.
Decentralized body: Body of Public Administration to which it has been transferred by legal statute, concrete and specific skills to be executed in exclusive and independent way of its controlling authority, resulting in a loss of competition by the superior of that body as to the subject decentralized and holding in its entirety in the not decentralized matter. Decentralization is the transfer of power and decision making into an organization peripheral divisions. It supposed to transfer power from a central government towards authorities that are not hierarchically subordinate.
Payment for environmental services: Program Payment for Environmental Services (PSA - Programa de Pago por Servicios Ambientales) is a financial recognition by the State, through FONAFIFO, to the owners and administrators of forests and forest plantations for environment services they provide. In accordance with the Forestry Law No. 7575, Costa Rica recognizes environmental services, such as emissions mitigation of greenhouse gases, protection of water for urban, rural or hydroelectric use, protection of biodiversity for conservation and sustainable use, scientific and pharmaceutical research and breeding, protection of ecosystems and life forms also the natural scenic beauty for tourism and scientific purposes.
Equitable participation: This refers to the equitable distribution of decision-making power through models of local governance. It is essential to ensure that the costs and benefits of protection and sustainable use of biodiversity and natural resources are equitably distributed condition.
Accountability (delivering reports): The process by which information is provided, accurate and timely, regarding institutional activities. It should not be just a reporting mechanism, but also to allow criticism and feedback for continuous improvement.
Ecological representativeness: This refers to the degree to which a system or network of protected areas does include within itself a full and balanced set of samples of the highest quality, corresponding to the full range of types of environments and existing natural features in a country or a region. It is one of the requirements for a protected area system to be functional and effective.
Automated System: Set of processes, procedures, and activities related each other, operating under technological tools with little or minimal human intervention tasks.
Institutional quality system: Set of basic principles of quality management and social rules, aimed at improving the performance of the institution by improving its internal relationships and customer satisfaction, searching permanently the continuous improvement in its processes.
Internal Control System: A set of actions, tasks and activities undertaken by the Administration to reasonably ensure compliance with its objectives.
Systematize: Process of collecting, organizing, analyzing and documenting information, it is mainly responsible for identifying and highlighting the lessons learned of a plan, program, project, etc.
Hydrological systems: It consists of a set of parts or components that fulfill different functions, simultaneously or successively, the end result is to obtain adequate distribution of water to enable the life and production of plants, animals and people.
Risk assessment system: A set of actions, tasks and activities that the Administration aimed at the identification, analysis, evaluation, management, review, documentation and communication of the most important risks to which is exposed the Administration to achieve its objective.
Conservation gaps: These are geographical areas that are considered of importance for the conservation of biophysical environment (land, inland waters and marine and coastal) and biodiversity that exists and it is not currently under any effective conservation initiative, either it public or private, described by GRUAS II.